Dr. med. Dirk Manski



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Signs and Symptoms of Renal Cell Carcinoma

Signs and Symptoms of Renal Cell Carcinoma

Without symptoms:

Over 50% of RCC are discovered incidentally (widespread use of imaging) and are asymptomatic.

Classic triad of symptoms:

Symptoms of an advanced renal cell carcinoma are flank pain, hematuria and palpable abdominal tumor.

B symptoms:

Night sweats, weight loss and fever are signs of a large tumor burden.

Metastases:

Metastases may cause cough, shortness of breath, bone pain, neurological problems and jaundice.

Paraneoplastic syndromes:

Renal cell carcinoma produce in 20% ectopic hormones and may present with paraneoplastic symptoms (Gold et al, 1996).

Hypercalcemia:

Hypercalcemia is caused by parathyroid hormone-like substances, vitamin D3, prostaglandins or bone metastases.

Polycythemia and hypertension:

Renin or erythropoetin production.

Stauffer syndrome:

Stauffer syndrome is a reversible syndrome of hepatic dysfunction (elevated AP, bilirubin and transaminases with pathological coagulation), which is probably triggered by cytokines (e.g. IL-6). Normalization may be expected in 70% after nephrectomy.

Further paraneoplastic symptoms:

Leukemoid reaction, thrombocytosis, Cushing syndrome, hirsutism, gynecomastia.







Index: 1–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z





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