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Review literature: (Riedmiller et al., 2001).
Definition of Phimosis
Phimosis is a congenital or acquired narrowing of the prepuce, which hinders (relative phimosis) or prevents (absolute phimosis) the retraction of the prepuce. Natural adhesions (without scarring) during the first years of life between the prepuce and the glans penis have to be distinguished from phimosis.
Epidemiology of Phimosis
The prevalence of adhesions between prepuce and glans are age dependent: 90% after 1 year of life, 10% after 6 years of life. The prevalence of true phimosis (with scarring) is 8% in 6-year old boys and 1% with 16 years of age.
Etiology (Causes) of phimosis
The prepuce is formed by a fold of skin, which surrounds the glans by the fifth month of fetal development. Initially, the inner sheet of the prepuce is connected to the glans with adhesions. Penile growth, epithelial debris (smegma) and intermittent erections lead to a separation of the prepuce from the glans: 10% after the first year of life, 90% after sixth year of life.
Scarring of the Prepuce
Recurrent inflammation (balanitis) leads to scarring and narrowing of the prepuce, which itself predisposes to recurrent balanitis. Additional risk factors for scarring are diabetes mellitus, adipositas or catheterization.
Complications of Phimosis
Frequent complications are urinary tract infections, a paraphimosis or recurrent balanitis. Obstructive voiding dysfunction and urinary retention are possible.
The risk of sexually transmitted diseases is higher in uncircumcised men.
Phimosis is a risk factor for penile cancer. With a good standard of hygiene care, penis cancer is very rare. The risk for cervical cancer is increased in women with uncircumcised men.
Signs and Symptoms
- Difficult of missing retractability of the prepuce
- Poor hygiene (smegma)
- Obstructive voiding symptoms, urinary retention
- Complications like paraphimosis or balanitis
Treatment of Phimosis
Complete (radical) or incomplete (prepuce sparing) circumcision is the cornerstone of phimosis treatment. Please see section circumcision: technique and complications. Contraindications for circumcision are untreated balanitis, coagulation disorders or hypospadias with possible repair in the future.
After local anesthesia of the penis, circumcision is performed using a Gomco clamp, Mogen clamp or with the Plastibell technique.
Conservative Treatment of Phimosis
Local cortisone treatment for 6–12 weeks can lead to a healing of the phimosis, e.g., betamethasone 0.06% cream. The success rate of conservative therapy (avoidance of circumcision) is around 75–90%. Contraindications to conservative therapy are recurrent urinary tract infections and obstructive voiding dysfunction due to phimosis.
Prophylactic Newborn Circumcision
Worldwide, 37–39% of men are circumcised, most because of religious observance. There is disagreement regarding prophylactic neonatal circumcision, especially when religious affiliation does not mandate circumcision. Prophylactic circumcision is e.g., very commonly performed in the United States. Since the diseases, which can be reduced by prophylactic circumcision are very rare, endorsement of routine circumcision is critical.
Arguments for a prophylactic newborn circumcision:
- Prevention of scarring phimosis and surgery in the phallic phase
- Reduced risk for urinary tract infections oder sexually-transmitted diseases
- Prevention of invasive penile cancer or cervical cancer of future sexual partners
Arguments against prophylactic newborn circumcision:
- Painful procedure with rare but potentially serious complications
- Circumcision does not provide any reliable protection against sexually-transmitted diseases
- Incidence of penile cancer is very low with adequate hygiene care (Overtreatment),
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ReferencesRiedmiller u.a. 2001 RIEDMILLER, H. ; ANDROULAKAKIS, P. ; BEURTON, D. ; KOCVARA, R. ; GERHARZ, E.: EAU guidelines on paediatric urology.
In: Eur Urol
40 (2001), Nr. 5, S. 589–99
Deutsche Version: Phimose