Dr. med. Dirk Manski

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Hematuria and Microhematuria: Causes and Diagnosis

Definition of Hematuria and Microhematuria

Hematuria is defined as visible blood in urine; microhematuria is defined with more than 5 erythrocytes per high power field. More than 20 erythrocytes per high power field is a strong microhematuria. Medical history and urine analysis are cornerstones for planing rational further imaging and endoscopic diagnosis:

Differential Diagnosis of Hematuria and Microhematuria

Abnormal Urine Color

Abnormal urine color can simulate hematuria, microscopic examination of the urine shows no blood cells.

Glomerular Hematuria

Examination of the urine shows deformed (dysmorphic) red blood cells, red blood cell casts and proteinuria.

Non-glomerular Hematuria

Examination of the urine shows circular red blood cells and frequently proteinuria (especially in systemic diseases and medical renal diseases). Initial hematuria is a sign for diseases of the urethra or prostate. Terminal hematuria is often caused by diseases of the bladder trigone.

Diagnostic Workup of Hematuria

Basic Workup of Hematuria

Further studies in Hematuria

Index: 1–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


  Deutsche Version: Hämaturie