Dr. med. Dirk Manski

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Bladder cancer (2/7): Tumor Stages and Pathology

Review Literature: EAU guidelines: superficial bladder cancer (Babjuk et al, in 2008 and 2013). Advanced bladder cancer (Stenzl et al, 2009 and Witjes et al, 2013).

Tumor Staging of Bladder Cancer [UICC 2010]

Superficial bladder carcinoma:

T2:

Tumor invades muscle (tunica muscularis).


T3:

Tumor invades perivesical tissue.

T4:

Tumor invades adjacent organs.

N:

Lymph node involvement.

M:

Distant metastasis.

G:

Grading.

Macroscopic Pathology of Bladder Cancer

Localization:

Bladder cancer most commonly begins at the side walls or posterior wall in 70%. Less common bladder neck and trigone (20%) or anterior wall in 10%. A multifocal growth can be seen in 50%.

Growth pattern:

The initial growth pattern is either flat and/or exophytic. In advanced disease, the tumor infiltrats the detrusor muscle and adjacent organs [Fig. advanced bladder cancer].