Definition of Retrocaval Ureter
A retrocaval ureter, which is also called circumcaval ureter, is an abnorm development of Vena cava and ureter. Due to the persistence of the right subcardinal vein in the lumbar area, the vena cava develops ventral of the right ureter (Zhang et al, 1990).
Epidemiology of Retrocaval Ureter
Etiology of Retrocaval Ureter
The ureter lies between the following fetal veins: dorsally the supracardinal vein and posterior cardinal vein, ventrally the subcardinal vein. Normally, the portion kaudal of the renal vein of the inferior vena cava develops from the right supracardinal vein and the ureter lies anterior to the inferior vena cava. If the subcardinal vein persists, the inferior vena cava develops ventral of the ureter and may cause hydronephrosis by compression between vena cava and spine. Loss of right-sided kidney function is possible.
Signs and Symptoms
The right mid ureter makes a sudden turn to the medial, there may also be a change in diameter. Caudally from the ureter kinking, there is often no contrasting of the ureter. Thus, the ureter looks like a "J". Signs of hydronephrosis or nephrolithiasis may be present.
Spiral (S-shaped) curve of the ureter around the vena cava is visible [fig. retrocaval ureter].
The abnormal position of the ureter in relation to the inferior vena cava is easily visible.
Retrocaval ureter: spiral or S-shaped curve of the ureter around the inferior vena cava with significant hydronephrosis. With kind permission of Prof. Dr. R. Harzmann, Augsburg.
Treatment of Retrocaval Ureter
Surgical treatment is necessary in complications, such as intermittent flank pain, nephrolithiasis or recurrent infections. Surgery consists of the division of the ureter, spatulation and reanastomosis ventral of the vena cava (ureteroureterostomy). In case of a solitary kidney associated with a retrocaval ureter, dissection and anastomosis of the vena cava has been reported, to enable repositioning of the ureter without ureteroureterostomy.
Index: 1–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
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- Zhang, X. D.; Hou, S. K.; Zhu, J. H.; Wang, X. F.;
Meng, G. D. & Qu, X. K.
- Diagnosis and treatment of retrocaval
Eur Urol, 1990, 18, 207-210