Dr. med. Dirk Manski



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Gynecomastia: Differential Diagnosis of Male Breast Enlargement

Gynecomastia is defined as a benign glandular enlargement of the male breast. Gynecomastia must be distinguished from breast enlargement due to tumor or fat deposition.

Differential Diagnosis of Gynecomastia

Physiological Gynecomastia

Increase in Estrogens or Androgens Causes Gynecomastia

Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism may cause Gynecomastia

Hyperprolactinemia causes Gynecomastia

Drugs causing Gynecomastia

Idiopathic Gynecomastia

The cause of gynecomastia cannot be identified in 50%. Gynecomastia is associated with the following chronic diseases: liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, heart failure and renal insufficiency.

Non-glandular Male Breast Enlargement

Diagnostic Work-up of Gynecomastia

History and Physical Examination:

Labatory tests:

Testosterone in serum, LH, FSH, TSH, prolactin.

Imaging studies:

Ultrasound imaging and/or mammography, if a tumor is suspected.







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  Deutsche Version: Differentialdiagnose der Gynäkomastie