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Ureter Ultrasound and Sonography Classification of Hydronephrosis
The indications for ultrasonography of the ureters are comparable to the indications for renal ultrasound (see section renal ultrasound).
The transducer used for ureter ultrasonography is a sector or curved array probe with 3.5–5 MHz. The examination of the ureters is done in supine position and with inspiration of the patient. In case of unfavorable conditions, a lateral decubitus position is helpful, whereby the side to be examined is raised by 30\textdegree. The kidney is used as an acoustic window, the renal pelvis and the ureteral outlet can be visualized regularly. Intestinal air often prevents the examination of the proximal ureter, the mid portion cannot be examined with ultrasound. The distal part of the ureter is examined in supine position and with full bladder, the bladder is used as an acoustic window.
The distinction between hydronephrosis or significant urinary tract obstruction is not possible with sonography. The dilatation of the upper urinary tract is classified according to morphological criteria [fig. classification of hydronephrosis]. Consequently, hydronephrosis should be described in the ultrasonography report without judging the significance of the obstruction (Beetz u.a., 2001).
|Renal ultrasound||Index||Bladder ultrasound|
Index: 1–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
- Singer u.a. 2006 SINGER, Eric A. ; GOLIJANIN, Dragan J. ; DAVIS, Robert S. ; DOGRA, Vikram:
- What’s new in urologic ultrasound?
In: Urol Clin North Am
33 (2006), Aug, Nr. 3, S. 279–286
Deutsche Version: Sonographie der Harnleiter