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Cotrimoxazole: Side Effects, Contraindications and Dosage
Review literature: (Simon and Stille, 1997).
Co-trimoxazole is an antibiotic with a fixed combination of trimethoprim (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor) and sulfamethoxazole (sulfonamide).
Mechanism of Action of Cotrimoxazole
Cotrimoxazole is bactericidal due to the double inhibition of bacterial folic acid synthesis.
Antibiotic Spectrum of Cotrimoxazole:
Bacteria causing urinary tract infection such as E. coli, Enterococci, Mycoplasma, Klebsiella, Serratia, Enterobacter (KES group), but with increasing resistance rates.
Urologic Indications for Cotrimoxazole:
Treatment or prevention of urinary tract infection.
Pharmacokinetics of Cotrimoxazole
- Elimination half life 10–12 h.
- Renal elimination 60% (trimethoprim) to 90% (sulfamethoxazole)
Side Effects of Cotrimoxazole
Skin rash, rarely severe skin reactions (Stevens-Johnson and Lyell syndrome).
Exacerbation of renal failure (reversible).
Bone marrow depression in case of long-term therapy, rarely agranulocytosis.
Drug Interactions with Co-trimoxazole
Co-trimoxazole enhances the effect of phenytoin and sulfonylureas. Increased toxicity of cyclosporine, barbiturates, p-aminosalicylic acid and methotrexate.
Contraindications of Cotrimoxazole
- Folic acid deficiency
- Severe liver disease
- Renal failure
- Pregnancy, newborns
- Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
- Acute hepatic porphyria
- Bone marrow insufficiency
Dosage of Co-trimoxazole
The ratio between trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole is 1:5. The dosage for adults is 480 mg (80 mg trimethoprim and 400 mg sulfamethoxazole) 1-0-1 p.o. to 960 mg p.o. 1-0-1. The dosage for children is 24 mg/kg p.o. co-trimoxazole 1-0-1.
In uncomplicated acute cystitis of women, co-trimoxazole is given for 3 days. In any other urinary tract infection, the recommended treatment duration is at least 7 days.
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ReferencesSimon und Stille 1997 SIMON, C. ; STILLE, W.: Antibiotika-Therapie in Klinik und Praxis.
Stuttgart New York : Schattauer, 1997
Deutsche Version: Cotrimoxazol