Dr. med. Dirk Manski

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Chloride – Serum Blood Test

Chloride is the main negatively charged electrolyte (anion) in the extracellular space. As a counterweight to sodium, chloride plays an essential role in volume regulation and in cell membrane physiology.

Standard value:

95–110 mmol/l.

Laboratory test method:

Measurement with ion-selective electrode or flame photometer.


Measurement of chloride in serum is indicated in disorders of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis.

Differential Diagnosis of Hypochloremia:

Usually concomitant with hyponatriemia: diuretics, Cushing syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, vomiting (loss of gastric acid), respiratory acidosis.

Differential Diagnosis of Hyperchloremia:

Usually concomitant with hypernatremia: chronic kidney disease, iatrogenic by acid intake or carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, primary hyperparathyroidism or respiratory alkalosis. Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (without anion gap) occurs in bicarbonate loss (diarrhea, intestinal fistulas or after urinary diversion) or in renal tubular acidosis.

Index: 1–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Guder, W. G. & Nolte, J. Das Laborbuch für Klinik und Praxis
Urban + Fischer, 2009

Siegenthaler 1988 SIEGENTHALER, W. ; SIEGENTHALER, W. (Hrsg.): Differentialdiagnose innerer Krankheiten.
Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, New York., 1988

  Deutsche Version: Elektrolyte im Serum: