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Anatomy of the Abdominal Cavity: Veins and Lymphatic System
- Anatomy of the abdominal cavity: Muscles
- Anatomy of the abdominal cavity: Nervous system
- Anatomy of the abdominal cavity: Arteries
- Anatomy of the abdominal cavity: Veins and lymphatic system
Major Veins of the Abdominal Cavity
Vena cava inferior
The inferior vena cava leads the blood from the lower half of the body to the right atrium. The following veins drain into the inferior vena cava (from caudal to cranial) [fig. abdominal vein system]:
- Common iliac veins: the inferior vena cava arises from the confluence of the common iliac veins at the level of the 4th to 5th lumbar vertebrae.
- Lumbar veins: paired veins from the abdominal wall.
- Right gonadal vein (testicular or ovarian vein).
- Renal veins
- Hepatic veins
Veins of the abdominal and thoracic cavity: V. jugularis interna (1), V. jugularis externa (2), V. subclavia (3), V. thoracica interna (4), V. cava superior (5), V. hemiazygos (6), V. azygos (7), V. cava inferior (8), V. intercostalis (9), V. suprarenalis (10), V. renalis (11), V. testicularis/ovarica (12), V. iliaca externa (13). Fig from Gray’s Anatomy, Lea and Febinger 1918, Philadelphia, USA.
Lymphatic System in the Abdominal Cavity
Lymph system of the abdominal cavity: Ductus lymphaticus dexter (1), Truncus jugularis sinister (2), Truncus subclavius sinister (3), Ductus thoracicus (4), V. azygos (5), V. hemiazygos (6), paravertebrale Lymphknoten (7), Cisterna chyli (8), Nodi lymphatici lumbales (9). Figure from Gray’s Anatomy, Lea and Febinger 1918, Philadelphia, USA.
Regional Lymph Node Groups of the Abdominal Cavity
- Lumbar lymph nodes (Nodi lymphatici lumbales): located right and left along the large vessels. Depending on the location, the lymph nodes are also described as paraaortic lymph nodes and paracaval lymph nodes. The lumbar lymph nodes receive drainage from the paired abdominal organs and pelvic organs.
- Preaortic lymph nodes (Nodi lymphatici mesenterici, colici, gastrici, panreaticolienales, hepatici ...): the lymph nodes are located around the major visceral branches of the aorta and receive drainage of the unpaired abdominal organs.
Lymphatic Vessels of the Abdominal Cavity
The right and left lumbar lymph trunk drains the lumbar lymph nodes into the cysterna chyli. The preaortic lymph nodes drain via the intestinal trunk into the cysterna cyli. The cysterna chyli is located on the aorta at the level of the diaphragma. The lymph fluid from the cysterna chyli drains via the ductus thoracicus through the thoracic cavity into the junction of left subclavian vein and internal jugular vein [fig. lymphatic vessels].
|Abdominal arteries||Index||Pelvic cavity anatomy|
Index: 1–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
ReferencesBenninghoff 1993 BENNINGHOFF, A.: Makroskopische Anatomie, Embryologie und Histologie des Menschen.
München; Wien; Baltimore : Urban und Schwarzenberg, 1993
Deutsche Version: Anatomie Abdomen: Venen