Urinary Retention (Ischuria)
Definition of Urinary Retention
Urinary retention is lack of ability to empty the urinary bladder.
Differential Diagnosis of Urinary Retention
Causes of urinary retention: differential diagnosis of obstructive voiding symptoms and causes of urinary retention.
|| DD urinary retention
|Diseases of the prostate
||Benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, bladder stones, bladder neck sclerosis, detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD).
|Diseases of the urethra
||Urethral strictures, urethral valves, female urethral cancer and male urethral cancer, foreign bodies, phimosis.
|Diseases of the urinary bladder
||Neurogenic bladder disorders, drugs (anticholinergic drugs, neuroleptics), pelvic surgery, diabetes mellitus.
Diagnostic Work-Up in Urinary Retention
- Sonography of the bladder before inserting the transurethral catheter
- Laboratory tests: creatinine, PSA.
- Trial of micturition after removing the transurethral catheter: determination of residual urine and urine flow.
- Abdominal imaging: intravenous urography, alternatively KUB X-ray and renal sonography.
- Retrograde urethrography or cystoscopy
- Optional: urodynamic testing
Index: 1–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
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