Peyronie's disease: Diagnostic Work-up and Treatment
Review literature: (Gholami et al, 2003) (Hauck et al, 2006) (Tunuguntla, 2001).
Diagnostic Work-up for Peyronie's Disease
Photo documentation of the deviation
Photo-documentation of the penile deviation is recommended before surgical treatment after self-stimulation or after intracavernosal injection of prostaglandin.
Sonography of the Penis
Penile plaques can be seen using a high-resolution linear transducer. The plaques should be limited to the tunica albuginea (exclusion of a sarcoma). Documentation of the calcifications.
Duplex (Doppler) Ultrasound Imaging of the Penile Blood Vessels
Vascular testing is indicated for patients with erectile dysfunction. The most common cause of erectile dysfunction is a veno-occlusive dysfunction.
Cavernosography is seldom indicated in Peyronie's disease. Cavernosography can proof veno-occlusive dysfunction, localize the venous leakage and confirm the Doppler ultrasound findings.
Medical Treatment of Peyronie's Disease
The effectiveness of medical treatment is indeed statistically proven in some studies. In clinical practice, the effect is very small. Medical treatment is justified in the inflammatory phase of the disease for the relief of symptoms; an improvement of chronic penile deviation cannot be expected.
Potassium Aminobenzoate (Potaba)
Potassium Aminobenzoate (Potaba) is an antifibrotic drug. Potaba achieved in a randomized study a reduction of the plaque size and prevented worsening of the penile deviation. An existing deviation could not be improved, as the effect on pain was not significant (Weidner et al, 2005). The dosage of Potaba is 4 × 3 g p.o.
Significant reduction of pain and improvement of the deviation was reported with Carnitine. The dosage of Carnitine is 2 g / day p.o.
Drugs without Evidence of Efficacy in Randomized Trials
- Vitamin E
Intralesional Injections for Peyronie's disease
Intralesional injections are used to increase the drug dose in the plaques and to avoid systemic side effects.
Verapamil has an inhibitory effect on fibroblasts and increases the production of collagenases. The efficacy of verapamil on Peyronie's disease is controversial. In several uncontrolled studies and in a randomized study, the efficacy of verapamil infiltration was demonstrated. Two other randomized studies found no efficiency.
Dosage of verapamil infiltrations: local infiltration of 10 mg verapamil diluted in 10 ml every two weeks, to a total of 12 injections.
Interferon inhibits fibroblasts and increases the production of collagenases. In particular, high-dose interferon treatment (5-10 MU interferon-α 2b) demonstrated in several controlled trials (without a long follow-up) effectiveness in pain reduction, improvement of sexual function and penile deviation.
Local injections of collagenase were effective in a randomized study, improvement of penile deviation was not pronounced.
Despite its relatively frequent use, cortisone injections are probably not effective (one controlled study without effectiveness).
Further Nonsurgical Treatment Alternatives for Peyronie's Disease
Electromotive Treatment (Iontopheresis)
Electromotive treatment uses the help of a weak electric current to bring ionized substances in high concentrations to penile plaques. Systemic side effects can be avoided. Agents used are verapamil, dexamethasone and lidocaine. Controlled studies are lacking.
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT)
Several sessions of ESWT with e.g. 2000 shock waves on the plaques of Peyronie's disease lead to the alleviation of pain. Some of the plaques are reduced in size, an improvement of the deviation is not very likely (Hauck et al, 2006).
Surgical Treatment of Peyronie's Disease
Indications for Surgery due to Peyronie's Disease
After evaluation of conservative treatment alternatives and only for patients with stable stage of disease (at least 1 year of consistent deviation), surgery may be a treatment alternative depending on the extent of the deviation and erectile function.
With a low-grade deviation and preserved erectile function, the Nesbit operation or plication techniques are suitable. With high-grade deviation and preserved erectile function, plaque incisision/excision and grafting is recommended. In the absence of erectile function despite of cavernosal injection treatment, a penile prosthesis is the surgical treatment alternative.
Nesbit Operation for Peyronie's Disease
During Nesbit operation, an elliptical excision of the tunica albuginea on the convex side and closure enables to straighten the penile deviation (Nesbit, 1965). Modified technique: longitudinal incision of the tunica albuginea and horizontal closure (Yachia, 1990).
Advantage of the Nesbit technique: no mechanical weakening of the penile shaft by grafting. Disadvantage of the Nesbit technique: strong deviations can only be straightened with a loss in penile length. For technique and complications of the Nesbit procedure, please refer to Section Urologic Surgery.
Plication technique by Essed and Schroeder
The excision of the tunica albuginea (Nesbit procedure) is omitted. Reduction stitches with nonabsorbable sutures shorten the tunica albuginea on the convex side and straighten the penile deviation. For technique and complications of the Nesbit procedure, please refer to Section Urologic Surgery.
Plaque Inzision and Grafting of Corporatomy
After the incision/excision of the penile plaque on the concave side, the penis can be straightened. The corporatomy creates a defect in the corpus cavernous. This defect must be covered with endogenous or exogenous materials (skin, vein, allogene material). Penile straightening is possible without shortening of the penis. For technique and complications, please refer to Section Urologic Surgery.
Implantation of a Penile Prosthesis
In patients with Peyronie's disease with severe erectile dysfunction despite treatment, erectile function after plaque inzision and grafting cannot be expected. These patients should be offered a penile prosthesis as a surgical treatment option.
Index: 1–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
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Gholami u.a. 2003 GHOLAMI, S. S. ;
GONZALEZ-CADAVID, N. F. ; LIN, C. S. ; RAJFER,
J. ; LUE, T. F.:
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Hauck, E. W. u. a. (2006). A critical analysis of nonsurgical treatment of Peyronie’s disease. In: Eur Urol 49, S. 987–997.
Nesbit 1965 NESBIT, R. M.:
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Description of Corrective Operation.
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Tunuguntla 2001 TUNUGUNTLA, H. S.:
- Management of Peyronie’s disease-a review.
In: World J Urol
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Weidner, W. u. a. (2005). Potassium paraaminobenzoate (POTABA) in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease: a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized study. In: Eur Urol 47, 530–5; discussion 535–6.
Yachia 1990 YACHIA, D.:
- Modified corporoplasty for the treatment of penile curvature.
In: J Urol
143 (1990), Nr. 1, S. 80–2