Metronidazole: Treatment of Anaerobic and Parasitic Infections
Mechanism of Action of Metronidazole
Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole antibiotic, which is effective against anaerobic bacteria and protozoa (Simon und Stille, 1997).
Antibiotic spectrum of metronidazole:
Metronidazole is sensitive against almost obligate anaerobic bacteria, and against protozoa such as Trichomonas, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba.
Urological indications for Metronidazole:
- Combined application of metronidazole with e.g. cephalosporins in severe intra-abdominal infections
- Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in combination with a cephalosporin for procedures with opening of the colon
- Pseudomembranous enterocolitis caused by Clostridium difficile
- Bacterial vaginosis
- Combined application of metronidazole with e.g. cephalosporins in severe pelvic inflammatory disease
Pharmacokinetics of Metronidazole:
Good oral absorption or parenteral administration, elimination half life 7 h, renal excretion 30%.
Side effects of Metronidazole:
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pancreatitis.
Dizziness, ataxia, convulsions, peripheral neuropathy.
Other organ systems:
Rashes, itching, reversible neutropenia.
Contraindications of Metronidazole:
Pregnancy, alcohol consumption.
Interactions of Metronidazole:
Metronidazole may elevate blood levels of warfarin and lithium. Metronidazole causes a severe alcohol intolerance.
Dosage of Metronidazole:
Intravenous dosage 0.5 g i.v. 1-0-1 or single dose perioperatively. Oral dosage 0.4 g 1-1-1 or 0.5 g 1-0-1.
Trade names of metronidazole:
Arilin, Clont, Flagyl, Mepagyl, Nidagyl, Infectoclont, Vagimid.
Index: 1–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
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Simon und Stille 1997 SIMON, C. ; STILLE, W.:
- Antibiotika-Therapie in Klinik und Praxis.
Stuttgart New York : Schattauer, 1997