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Acute Bacterial Prostatitis
Review literature: (Benway and Moon, 2008).
Definition of Acute Prostatitis
Acute bacterial prostatitis is characterized by sudden fever, perineal and suprapubic pain and voiding symptoms. The urine analysis reveals a urinary tract infection.
Etiology of Acute Prostatitis
Acute prostatitis is a bacterial infection of the prostate, caused by ascension of bacteria from the urinary tract, please see section urinary tract infection. Risk factors for acute bacterial prostatitis: intraprostatic reflux, phimosis, anal sex, urinary tract infections, epididymitis, bladder catheterization, prostate biopsy or transurethral resections.
Pathology of Acute Prostatitis
- Enlarged prostate
- Hyperemia and edema
- Abscess formation
- Infiltration by neutrophils in acinar and stromal tissue
Signs and Symptoms
Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms:
Painful prostate exam: prostate of soft consistency, possibly with fluctuation as a sign of a prostate abscess.
Diagnostic Work-Up of Acute Prostatitis
Urine culture usually identifies the pathogen and is mandatory before antibiotic treatment.
Blood culture can identify the pathogen, if a high fever or signs of urosepsis are present.
Urinary retention or residual urine?
Transrectal ultrasound imaging
After initiating the antibiotic treatment, transrectal imaging can be safely performed and may reveal an abscess of the prostate [fig. prostatic abscess]. Alternative imaging: computed tomography.
Prostatic abscess (left): hypoechoic area in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Center and right: transperineal puncture, advancing a guide wire and drainage of the prostatic abscess
Treatment of Acute Prostatitis
Until the results of urine culture and blood culture are available, treatment is started with e.g. ofloxacin 200–400 mg p.o. 1-0-1 or ciprofloxacin 500 mg p.o. 1-0-1.
In severe cases, intravenous treatment is started with ampicillin/clavulanic acid 2.2 g 1-1-1 i.v. or cephalosporin i.v. combined with gentamicin 3 mg/kg i.v. 1-0-0.
Duration of Antibiotic Therapy
Antibiotic treatment is given parenterally for 3–7 days. Afterwards, treatment is switched to a full-dose oral antibiotic treatment for 2–4 weeks. Prospective studies of acute prostatitis are lacking.
- Suprapubic catheter drainage is necessary in urinary retention or refractory fever.
- Bed rest
- Treatment of fever and pain with NSAID, e.g. diclofenac or metamizol
- Lactulose for stool softening
- Needle aspiration is sufficient in a small prostatic abscess
- Perineal drainage (Pigtail 8–12 CH) for large prostate abscess formation [fig. prostatic abscess]
- Transurethral resection and unroofing of central prostate abscess formation
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Index: 1–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
- Benway, B. M. & Moon, T. D.
- Bacterial prostatitis.
Urol Clin North Am, 2008, 35, 23-32;
Deutsche Version: Akute bakterielle Prostatitis